goal of the Canadian EMERGENCE project is to capture and document
developments in e-work practices in Canada as they reshape
employment and industrial patterns domestically and internationally.
Qualitative case studies increase mutual understanding of
the extent to which e-work practices may be transferred between
Europe, Asia,Australia and Canada
by providing information on e-work patterns in each continent
and stimulating transfer of knowledge between governments
and industry association counterparts in each region.
participants investigate the quality and describe the characteristics
of telemediated jobs that are relocating between Canada, Asia
and Europe, as well as identify factors that facilitate and
constrain the development of new forms of e-work with particular
reference to technological, organizational and human capital
advances understanding in Canada about the evolution of our
domestic labour market vis-à-vis the global economy,
particularly in terms of evaluating if, and to what extent,
e-work is implicated in a growing divide between core and
marginalized employment opportunities. Researchers employ
an analytical framework that captures how the intersection
of gender, class, ethnicity and citizenship mediate the impact
of e-work developments for residents of Canada, Europe and
Asia. The frame-work allows for the identification of social
groups particularly at risk of social exclusion amidst the
new patterns of employment that are emerging in the global
information society, while also illuminating new opportunities
for women and other groups presently disadvantaged in the
or Telemediated Work: Refers to the relocation of work
(i.e. uses information which can be processed by computer)
• telemediated (i.e. information that can be transmitted
over a telecommunications link)
• eWork is any form of work where information and communication
technologies (ICT) are
used to mediate work between the employee and employer or
employee and client.
Information and communication technologies
Refers to where the work is coming from or where it is managed
Refers to where the relocated eWork is being carried out
broad distinctions are used to classify eWork:
1. A legal
distinction as to whether workers are considered internal
(people work as employees) or external to the organization
meaning outsourced labour that is mediated by a contract for
a supply for services.
2. A distinction
in the types of workplaces with work being performed on shared
premises such as an office and work that is conducted in isolation
away from office premises. These individuals may be working
from their home or nomadically from a variety of locations
for all or part of the workweek.
of the project will be of direct value to:
companies and other stakeholders in employment location
• Anyone involved in economic development at regional and
• SMEs in the knowledge industries looking for niche markets
in the new global digital economy
• Anyone involved in training, employment creation and equality
• Social partners involved in the development of employment
• Anyone involved in the development of policies relating
to international trade in services and in monitoring industrial
• International aid agencies
• Researchers in the fields of economics, econometrics,
economic geography, organisational theory, science and technology
policy, development studies and other related disciplines
• National statistics offices.
and identify the motives, enabling technologies, organizational
and cultural facilitators and barriers involved in the relocation
the processes involved with relocation, their social consequences
and employment effects.
what the regional push and pull factors are in the delocalisation
of work using ICT's.
are the aims, the processes and the forms of relocation, the
critical success factors, and the costs and benefits?
are the companies' motives for relocation part of their
activities on the basis of information and communication
• Who are the social actors involved in decisions to relocate
• What are the key enabling technologies, the forms of implementation
and the use of the technical infrastructure?
• What features of organisational structure and corporate
culture act as facilitators or, or barriers to new forms
• What are the HR and training issues? What are the knowledge
management issues involved? Are they critical for success?
• What are the costs and benefits? How are they assessed?
are the impacts, in particular the consequences for employment?
are the positive or negative impacts on the local labour
market in both source and destination regions?
• What are the characteristics of the workers whose jobs
are most likely to be endangered?
• What are the characteristics of the workers most likely
• What are the characteristics of telemediated jobs in terms
of skills level, wages, working hours, contractual arrangements
are some regions much more successful than others in attracting
are the factors in the national and regional environment
(economic, social and political), which act as facilitators
of, or barriers to, these new forms of employment?
• What are the characteristics of source and destination
regions? What are the push and pull factors?
• What are the criteria used in selecting a location for
information-processing work? What are the processes of selection