Participatory Budgeting


This page contains papers, links, and other information about research and other projects related to participatory budgeting that are being developed throughout the world. We would appreciate any feedback (please refer to contacts on home page) regarding the content of this webpage, as well as any additional material that would contribute to the knowledge base we are developing.


-- Abers, Rebecca. Text about 11 years of PB in Porto Alegre. Article with 16 pages about the PB in Porto Alegre within the political context, with bibliography. 2001.
-- Abers, Rebbeca. Interviews about PB with 3 PT mayors in Porto Alegre, from 1989 to 2002 (Olívio Dutra, Tarso Genro, Raul Pont). 2001.
-- Abers, Rebecca. Difficulties in the introduction and implementation of the PB in Porto Alegre. Talk by Rebecca Abers in the Latin American Studies Congress Miami. 2000.
-- Abers, Rebecca. Learning democratic practice: distributing government resources through popular participation in Porto Alegre, Brasil. In Douglas, M. & Friedmann, J. (ed.). Cities for Citizens: planning in the rise of civil society in a global age. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
-- Abers, Rebecca. From ideas to practice: the PT and participatory governance in Brazil. In Latin MAreican Perspectives, vol. 23:4 (35-53), 1996.
-- Alvarez, Sonia, Dagnino, E. & Escobar, A. Culture of Politics/Politics of Culture. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998.
-- Avritzer, Leonardo. New Public Spheres in Brazil: Local Democracy and Deliberative Politics. 2002
-- Avritzer, Leonardo. New Public Spheres in Brazil: Local Democracy and Deliberative Politics. 2002.
-- Avritzer, Leonardo. Civil Society, Public Space and Local Power: a study of the Participatory Budget in Belo Horizonte and Porto Alegre. 2000.
-- Avritzer, Leonardo. Public Deliberation at the Local Level: Participatory Budgeting in Brazil. 1999.
-- Avritzer, Leonardo. Modes of Democratic Deliberation: theoretical remarks on participatory budgeting in Brazil.
-- Baiocchi, Gianpaolo. Participation, Activism, and Politics: The Porto Alegre experiment and Deliberative Democratic Theory. 1999.
-- Camach, P. Brazil: the long march to the new republic. In New Left Review (190): 21-58, 1990.
-- Connif, M. & MacCann, F. Modern Brazil: Elites and masses in historical perspectives. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
-- Goldfrank, Benjamin. Deepening Democracy Through Citizen Participation? A Comparative Analysis of Three CitiesComparing PB in Montevideo, Caracas and Porto Alegre (working draft). 2001.
-- Goldsmith, William W. Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Planners Network Online, no. 140. March/April, 2000.
-- Goldsmith, William W. PB and community policy in Porto Alegre. 2000.
-- Fung, A. & Wright, E. Experiments in empowered deliberative democracy. Wisconsin, 1999.
-- Gay, R. Popular Organization and Democracy in Rio de Janeiro. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.
--Khosla, Prabha. Water, equity and money:The need for gender-responsive budgeting in water and sanitation. Netherlands Council of Women March 2003
-- Mainwaring, S. Clientelism, patrimonialism and economic crisis: Brazil since 1979. Washington: LASA, 1990.
-- Navarro, Zander. Participation, democratizing practices and the formation of a modern polity - the case of ‘participatory budgeting’ in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Development, London: Sage, volume 41, number 3, September, 1998, p. 68-71.
--Nieuwland, Hendrik. A Participatory Budgeting Model For Canadian Cities: Improving Representation
Through Increased Citizen Participation In The Municipal Budgeting Process
. Toronto, 2003.
-- Osborne, D. & Gaebler, T. Reinventing government: how the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing company, 1992.
-- Santos, Boaventura de Souza. Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre: Toward a Redistributive Democracy. Politics & Society: Stoneham, p.461-510, December 1998.
-- Sheth, D.L. Micro-Movements in India: Towards a New Politics of Participatory Democracy. 2002.
--Schugurensky, Daniel. Participatory Budget: A tool for democratizing democracy.Toronto Metro Hall, April 29, 2004.
--Schugurensky, Daniel. Citizenship Learning and Democratic Engagement: Political Capital Revisited. 2000 AERC Proceedings .
-- Singer, Paul. Budgeting and Democracy. Revista Economia Política, São Paulo. Vol.16, n.3, p. 20-30, July-Sept./1996
-- Starret, David. Foundations of Public Economics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
-- de Souza, Marcelo Lopes. The spatiality of participatory budgeting: a research agenda. Terra Livre, São Paulo, 15: 39-58. 2000. (Relation between space and PB. Also the most frequent critiques to PB. Article in Portuguese, summary in English and Spanish)
-- UN Habitat II, Chegendu Conference. Document about Porto Alegre and PB, presented at the United Nations Conference Habitat II. 2000.
-- UN Habitat II, Best Practices Database. Description of PB in Porto Alegre, by United Nations in several languages. 2002.
-- UNESCO. The Experience of the Participative Budget in Porto Alegre Brazil - Description of PB as best practice. 1996.
-- Wampler, Brian. A Guide to Participatory Budgeting. Description of PB, how it works, effects in the administration, results and possibilities of dissemination. 2000.
-- Weffort, F. Why democracy? In Stephan, A. Democratizing Brazil. New York: Oxford university Press, 1989.
-- Worldbank. Civic Engagement in Public Expenditure Management. Case Studies Porto Alegre Brazil: Participation in the Budget and Investment Plan. Study from the World Bank about PB in Porto Alegre: history, evolution process, critique.

-- Baratta, Tereza. Relatório del Encuentro de Trabajo Presupuesto Participativo en la Gestión Municipal. IBAM. Pobreza urbana y desarrollo, año 8, n.17, abril 1998, p. 99-101
-- Genro, Tarso. El mundo globalizado y el Estado necessario. Pobreza urbana y desarrollo. Año 8, n.17, abril 1998, p. 11-16
-- Godoy, Lilia. El presupuesto participativo como una herramienta fundamental de participación ciudadana. Responsabilidad, Buenos Ayres, n.23, p.5-6, otob./1999
-- Pires, Valdemir. Limites y potencialidades del presupuesto participativo. Revista International del Presupuesto Público, año XXVII, n.42, marzo-abril 2000, p. 81-122.

-- Bittar, Jorge (org.) O modo petista de governar. São Paulo: PT - Teoria e Debate, 1992.
-- Daniel, Celso. As administrações democráticas e populares em questão. Santo André: mimeo 1991.
-- Fundação Prefeito Faria Lima - CEPAM - Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Administração Municipal. Orçamento Participativo: por uma gestão democrática. São Paulo: CEPAM, 1998.
-- Jacintho, Jussara. A participação popular e o processo orçamentário. Leme SP: LED Editora de Direito, 2000.
-- Pinto, Mara & Baratta, Tereza. (coord.) Entendendo e participando da elaboração do orçamento municipal. Rio de Janeiro: IBAM, OEA, 1998.
-- Pontual, Pedro. O processo educativo no orçamento participativo. Dissertação de Doutorado, PUC-SP, 2000.
-- Possa, Jorge. Orçamento Participativo: a construção da cidadania. Revista do Legislativo, n. 26 abri-dez./1999.
-- Santos, Carlos A. (org.) Democracia, participação e orçamento. Rio de Janeiro: IBAM, ENSUR: FICONG, 1998.
-- Utzig, José E. & Guimarães, R. Democracia e participação popular na esfera pública: a experiência de Porto Alegre. In Bonduki, N. (org.) Habitat: as práticas bem-sucedidas em habitação, meio ambiente e gestão urbana nas cidades brasileiras. São Paulo: Studio Nobel, 1996, p. 51-57.
-- Villas-Boas, R. (org.) Balanço das experiências de orçamento participativo nos governos locais. São Paulo: Pólis, 1999.
-- More Portuguese documents available here in PDF

-- German documents available here in PDF



-- Abers, Rebecca. Daring Democracy. New Internationalist V.352, December 2002 pp 22-23.
-- Baiocchi,Gianpaolo. Emergent public spheres: Talking politics in participatory governance. American Sociological Review; Feb 2003; 68, 1; ABI/INFORM Complete pg. 52
-- Bahmueller, Charles F. Bahmueller explores the intellectual problems of teaching democratic citizenship. [features ] march–april 1998 • vol 2. no. 2
-- Ebdon, Carol & Franklin, Aimee. Searching for a Role for Citizens in the Budget Process. Public Budgeting & Finance / Spring 2004 34
-- Recife, Brazil: Gender and the Participatory Budget. Win News 29-3. Summer 2003
-- Koonings, Kees. Strengthening Citizenship in Brazil's Democracy: Local Participatory Governance in Porto Alegre. Bulletin of Latin American Research, Vol.23, No. 1, pp 79-99, 2004
-- Martin, Paul S. Voting's Rewards: Voter Turnout, Attentive Publics, and Congressional Allocation of Federal Money. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 47, No. 1, January, 2003, pp 110-127
-- Munck, Ronaldo. Neoliberalism, necessitarianism and alternatives in Latin America: there is no alternative (TINA)? Third World Quarterly, Vol 24, No 3, pp 495–511, 2003
-- Osmani, Siddiq R. Expanding Voice and Accountability through the
Budgetary Process
. Journal of Human Development, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2002.
-- Schugurensky, Daniel & Myers, John P. A framework to explore lifelong learning: the case of the civic education of civics teachers. INT. J. OF LIFELONG EDUCATION, VOL. 22, NO. 4 (JULY–AUGUST 2003), 325–352.
-- Teivainen, Teivo. The World Social Forum and global democratisation: learning from Porto Alegre. Third World Quarterly, Vol 23, No 4, pp 621–632, 2002


Books, Exerpts

-- Garcia, Soledad. Cities and Citizenship. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers. 1996.
-- Budlender, Debbie et al. How to do a gender-sensitive budget analysis:Contemporary research and practice. London: Australian Agency for International Development, Canberra and the Commonwealth Secretariat. 1998.




-- Josh Lerner: Building a Democratic City




-- WB Presentation about PB 1
-- WB Presentation about PB 2
-- Financial Planning at the City of North Vancouver
-- Participatory Budgeting in Guelph
-- Vancouver - City Choices 2004
-- Building a Democratic City - PB in Toronto
-- Schugurensky, Daniel. Enlightenment and engagement in adult education for democratic citizenship: Lessons from the Citizens' Forum and the Participatory Budget. CASAE-ACÉÉA National Conference 2001 - Twentieth Anniversary Proceedings.


-- Orçamento Participativo: The remarkable experience of direct democracy in a Brazilian town
-- The Deliberative Democracy Project @ University of Oregon
-- Deliberative Democracy @ Wikipedia
-- Participatory Budgeting @ Università degli Studi di Siena
-- PB concepts, etc. (In German)
-- About PB. (In German, with bibliography)
-- Various texts in English, Portuguese and Spanish
-- City of Porto Alegre (In Portuguese)
-- Materials and information about an NGO that supports PB with seminars, workshops, etc. (In Portuguese, some texts in English)
-- Government of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Information about the PB aat the state level (In Portuguese)
-- UNESCO Program Community Participation and Governance
-- PB in Germany, Nordrheim, Wesfalen, Bertelsmann Foundation. PB in six cities of different sizes
-- Projeto Democracia Participativa, L.Avritzer. Information about participatory democracy, looking into PB (In Portuguese)
-- Bertelsmann Foundation, Germany. Information about several projets
-- A rabble interview with Professor Daniel Schugurensky about bringing Brazilian-style participatory budgets to Canadian cities
-- RES PUBLICA: AN INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR EDUCATION IN DEMOCRACY. Draft. December 17, 2003. Civitas: An International Civic Education Exchange Program of the Center for Civic Education
-- Gender Budgets: Definition

Last modified on June 23, 2004
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